Q1. A. One of the objectives of UNCLOS is protection of marine environment and prevention of pollution. Define pollution as per UNCLOS and discuss the key features of obligations of coastal states in this regard.
B. State the 3 main tiers of the oil pollution damage compensation conventions of the IMO. In each case elaborate one who is responsible for payment of compensation. Also, state the source of funds as well as certification required by ship under each tier.
Q4. (a) Define "Pollution of the marine environment" as per UNCLOS 1982.
(b) How does a flag state protect marine environment through preventive and punitive regulations?
(c) Refer to relevant parts of MSA 1958 and state the provisions legislating compliance with these by India as a flag state and as a coastal state.
Q9. State the UNCLOS requirement for member state.
To register ships flagged with them.
To control safety pollution and civil / society aspects of ships.
What mechanism is used in India to comply with these requirement.