In fair weather if the T/C is surging the reasons can be attributed to a dirty air cooler which is confirmed by the large pressure drop seen in the water gauge across the air cooler. It can also be caused by a dirty air inlet filter confirmed by large pressure drop across the air filer as seen on its water gauge It can also be caused by a choked Exhaust gas heat exchanger of the waste heat boiler. A noted symptom during surging is fluctuation of the turbine RPM.
In rough weather surging is caused by the heavy variation of the propeller RPM caused by the frequent immerging and emerging of the propeller in the water whereby the exhaust flow or exhaust pressure in the manifold varies causing an imbalance leading to surging.
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