The modern scotch boiler is now an all welded construction. The main water drum is a cylindrical shell with the end plates flat and flanged at the rim to join the cylindrical shell by welding.
The front end plate may have two or three furnace openings depending on the diameter of the boiler. The furnace openings are flanged inwards to make a good joint with the corrugated cylindrical furnace. The furnace is rolled to a cylindrical shape from corrugated plating and the seams are welded . At the inner end of the furnace , it joins the combustion chamber. The furnace and combustion chamber are held firmly by short bar stays as well as the smoke tube stays.
The end plates are held firmly by the long bar stays to prevent buckling of the end plates which are flat when they are subjected to pressure.
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